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Never heard of a greater mouse deer before? Here are 4 interesting facts about this unique animal!

1) Neither a mouse nor a deer
  • The greater mouse deer is part of a distinctive group of animals known as chevrotains (See Section 1)

2) Greater mouse deer were once thought to be extinct in Singapore, but were rediscovered 80 years later
  • In 2008, the greater mouse deer were rediscovered on the island of Pulau Ubin (See Section 4)

3) Featured in Malay folklore
  • Known to be quick-witted and intelligent animals, mouse deer were featured in many stories of Malay folklore (See Section 6)

4) Greater mouse deer are capable of swimming
  • They have the ability to dive and stay underwater to avoid being captured by predators (See Section 7)

Interested to find out more? Read on to discover more amazing facts about the greater mouse deer!

1. A Mouse, a Deer or a Mouse Deer?


The greater mouse deer (Tragulus napu) belongs to a group of animals known as chevrotains, which means “little goat” in French.

However, it is neither a goat, a mouse nor a true deer! The use of “mouse” refers to its small body size. They are different from true deer in that they have triangular patterns on their upper jaws and that the males lack antlers [1] [2] .
Comparison.jpg
Relative sizes of humans, sambar deer, greater mouse deer and house mouse. The sambar deer and house mouse are animals that can be found in Singapore. The sizes for SH and HB for the 3 animals are based on the maximum recorded size for the animal[3] [4] [5] .
Two species of mouse deer can be found in Singapore, with the other being the lesser mouse deer (Tragulus kanchil). Most Singaporeans may not have seen a mouse deer before, likely because mouse deer are active at night, are extremely shy [6] [7] and are restricted to forests that are relatively undisturbed by people like the Central Catchment Nature Reserve, Bukit Timah Nature Reserve and Pulau Ubin[8] .

2. What does a greater mouse deer look like?


Physical characteristics


Adult
A fully grown greater mouse deer’s head to the body measures 52-60cm long, its hind foot up to 15.7cm in length. It has a shoulder height of 30- 35cm, has a tail of 6 to 10cm and weighs about 3.5-6 kilograms. Male mouse deer have enlarged lower canines that extends out of the upper jaw. Females have an udder in the middle of their hind legs with four mamme [9] [10] .

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An adult greater mouse deer. Image by Marcus Chua, annotations by Max Khoo. Used with permission.
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A photo showing the canine of a lesser mouse deer that extends out of the upper jaw. This canine is also present in the greater mouse deer.
Image by Hans De Bisschop, annotations by Max Khoo. Used under Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial License.
Mouse deer have an inter-mandibular gland at the lower jaw region which is an oval swelling consisting of many small pores that produces clear and oily secretions [11] [12] . This gland is larger in adult males than females[13] . These secretions play two important roles: a) Territorial marking: determine its territory, b) Reproductive behaviour: where male mouse deer rub the secretions on the back of females to mark them during mating[14] .
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A camera trap image showing a male greater mouse deer with the canineand swollen inter-mandibular gland. Image and annotations by Max Khoo.
Juvenile
After pregnancy, a greater mouse deer baby takes 152 to 172 days to develop in the mother’s womb before birth. Usually only one young is produced per birth. The juvenile, also known as a fawn, is born fully furred, and can stand in less than 30 minutes. It weighs about 375g at one day old, even lighter than a standard soccer ball of 450g! Greater mouse deer reach sexual maturity at 4.5months old and reach adult size at 5months old[15] .
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An adult greater mouse deer (foreground) and its fawn (background).Photo by Marcus Chua, used with permission.

Colouration

In general:
Body
The upperpart of the greater mouse deer’s fur is described as mottled orange-buff and grey-buff with blackish tips, with varying intensity of coloration between individuals. The underparts are white, normally lacking brown stripes on its belly[16] .

Neck, throat and upper chest patterns
The greater mouse deer have white and brown patterned markings on the underside of its neck and on its upper chest. Taking reference from the centre, there is a triangular white stripe, which is bordered by dark brown stripes. This is followed by two separate diagonal white stripes on each side, one originating near the front of the chin, and one in the middle of the throat. In total, there are five white stripes. The side profile of a greater mouse deer will usually reveal two white stripes on the side of the neck[17] [18] .

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A greater mouse deer with its five white stripes clearly shown.Image by Chan Kwok Wai, used with permission. Annotations by Max Khoo.
Variation of body size, colouration and skin patterns within species
An interesting fact is that the colouration and body size of greater mouse deer vary widely, and this has been attributed to the size of the island that it is found in[19] On larger islands. greater mouse deer have a larger body size and their fur is duller and yellowish brown in colour. For smaller islands, they have a smaller body size, and their fur is reddish and black in certain parts. Skin patterns of the greater mouse deer vary between regions[20] . See Section 10 on subspecies for more information.

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Two greater mouse deer showing varying coloration. Left: Greater mouse deer from the Singapore Zoo (origin unknown). Image by Lian Yee Ming, used with permission. Right: Wild greater mouse deer on Pulau Ubin. Image by Marcus Chua, used with permission.

3. How to distinguish between the two mouse deer species in Singapore?


Comparison with lesser mouse deer (Tragulus kanchil)
See a mouse deer in Singapore? How do you know which mouse deer you are looking at?

First, ask yourself where are you at? If you are on Pulau Ubin, you are most likely looking at a greater mouse deer. If you are on mainland Singapore, you are likely looking at a lesser mouse deer. However, to confirm, you will need to look at other distinguishing features. Below is a summary table of the typical differences between the two mouse deer species. However, do note that both species have a wide variation of colouration, striping patterns and size, especially for the ones living on islands[21] . This makes differentiation between the species a lot tougher.

General differences between greater and lesser mouse deer in Singapore[22] [23] [24] [25] :
Features and location
Greater mouse deer
Lesser mouse deer
Size
Overall size: LargerHead to body length: 52-60cm
  • Shoulder height: 30-35cm
  • Tail length: 6-10cm
  • Hindfoot length: 14-15.7cm
  • Weight: 3.5-4.5kg
  • Broader hind and fore foot as compared to lesser mouse deer
Overall size: SmallerHead to body length: 40-55cm
  • Shoulder height: 20-23cm
  • Tail length: 6-9cm
  • Weight: 1.4-2.5kg
  • Narrower hind and fore foot as compared to greater mouse deer
Throat stripes
5 white stripes (Refer to picture)
3 white stripes (Refer to picture)
Location
Pulau Ubin
Central catchment Nature Reserve and Bukit Timah Nature Reserve

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The differences between greater and lesser mouse deer.Left image by Marcus Chua, right image by Lian Yee Ming. Annotations by Max Khoo. Used with permission.
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Typical throat pattern of greater and lesser mouse deer. Each line represent a throat stripe in each species.
There are three throat stripes for the lesser mouse deer and five throat stripes for the greater mouse deer.Image and annotations by Marcus Chua, used with permission.
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Here shows a skull of the greater mouse deer. Many studies trying to differentiate between mouse deer species have focused on analysing the dimensions of various parts of their skull. Image by Phil Myers. Used under Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial License.

4. Were there always mouse deer in Singapore?


In the 20th century, specimens of greater mouse deer were collected from Changi, Kranji and Pulau Ubin in 1908, 1923 and 1921, respectively. Based on the lack of sightings subsequently, it was suggested that the greater mouse deer “has probably become extinct” in Singapore, with only the lesser mouse deer remaining in Central Catchment Nature Reserves and Bukit Timah Nature Reserve[26] . Eight greater mouse deer were also released during a reintroduction programme in one of Singapore’s nature reserves, but were not recorded ever since[27] [28] .

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Map showing the distribution of lesser and greater mouse deer in Singapore.Base map from Wikimedia Commons, Used under Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial License. Annotations by Max Khoo.
In 2008, the greater mouse deer was rediscovered during a mammal study in Pulau Ubin, an island off the North-Eastern coast of Singapore. Following that were several more sightings on the same island, captured on camera traps as well as photographed during transects conducted during the study[29] .

The researchers attributed the rediscovery of the greater mouse deer to several reasons. Firstly, the study was the first with a large and sustained sampling as compared to previous surveys, which increased the likelihood of sighting mouse deer after multiple surveys. This is so as mouse deer are shy and secretive, coupled with a small population in a dense forest, it could have avoided detection if there was not enough sampling effort. Secondly, the rediscovery could be due to the recovery of the forest habitats of Pulau Ubin after the closure of granite quarries and the resettlement of villagers over the last ten years. Lastly, the rediscovery could be due to the quick recovery of greater mouse deer population due to the absence of predators of like tigers and leopards on Pulau Ubin[30] .

They also suggested the possibility that the population on Pulau Ubin could have originated from Johor, Southern Malaysia, as the mouse deer could have swam over after due to forest clearings for plantations[31] (See Section 7 for swimming behaviour of mouse deer).

5. Let's go mouse deer spotting!


As both mouse deer species in Singapore are active at night, the chances of spotting them in the wild in Singapore is very slim. Your best bet would probably to head down to the Singapore Zoo, where they have both the lesser and greater mouse deer. You can even walk alongside the lesser mouse deer in the Fragile Forest exhibit, an exhibit that recreates a rainforest habitat where various animals are free to roam!

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Captive greater (left) and lesser (right) mouse deer in the Singapore Zoo. Image by Lian Yee Ming, annotations by Max Khoo. Used with permission.
However, if you really are determined to see a mouse deer in the wild, do take note of the opening hours of the Central Catchment Nature Reserve and Bukit Timah Nature Reserve if you are intending to look for the lesser mouse deer. Do also remember to stick to the trails and not veer off the path as that will disturb the forest.

How can you help with mouse deer research in Singapore?
If you do spot a mouse deer in Singapore, do record your sighting at Mammal Sightings in Singapore webpage.
Sighting records are important - over time, these can contribute to public awareness and education, suggest research projects and supplement research in conservation and management projects.

6. Learn about the role of mouse deer in our traditions and beliefs


Mouse deer (both greater and lesser) are featured in many stories of Malay folklore. They are known to be quick-witted and intelligent animals[32] . Here is a story showing just about how smart mouse deer are in folklore:

Sang Kanchil (Mr. Mouse deer) and the crocodiles
Sang Kanchil was travelling through the forest when he came to a river full of crocodiles. He wondered how to get across, and soon though of a plan. Going to the bank he called:

“Hi, Crocodiles, rise, float, I command you!”

“Who is this who commands?” said a crocodile raising his head lazily.

“I am a messenger of prophet Solomon” replied Kanchil. “Rise, crocodiles, for it is Solomon’s will that I count all his slaves; in the name of Solomon the Great I conjure you rise to the surface and float!”
The crocodiles were impressed and all swam to the surface and floated there.

“Come along, line up one beside the other” said Kanchil “or I will not be able to count you accurately”; so the crocodiles lined up until they stretched from one side of the river to the other.

“I will count you, one by one” said Kanchil “so that there will be no mistakes”.
He leaped from the bank onto the back of the nearest crocodile and counted “one” in a loud voice; “Two” as he leaped on the back of the next, “Three, Four, Five, Six, Seven, Eight, Nine, Ten, - done” as he leaped onto the farther bank.

“I counted truly, and now that my counting has brought me across you may sink into the mud, you silly beasts.”

Except from: An Introduction to Mammals of Singapore and Malaya, by John Harrison[33] . It is presumed that the mouse deer refers to a lesser mouse deer due to it being called "Kanchil".

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Sang Kanchil, the main character of Pada Zaman Dahulu (Once Upon A Time) an animated mini-series told in Malay that brings to life the Malaysian folk stories of a clever mousedeer and other jungle creatures. Image is a screen capture from Pada Zaman Dahulu - Sang Kancil.Used in accordance with the Fair Use guidelines.


Another version of the folklore: Sang Kanchil and the crocodiles.


7. Everything you need to know about greater mouse deer biology and ecology


Below is all the information currently available about the greater mouse deer. Studies were mostly done on greater mouse deer overseas, hence local context is lacking.

Habitat

Greater mouse deer are solitary animals and considered to be dry land terrestrial species. They occupy primary forests, secondary forests [34] [35] [36] , logged forests [37] [38] and sometimes venture into gardens[39] . They occupy wide altitude range of up to 1000 meters above sea level[40] .

In the primary forests of Borneo, the greater mouse deer have a home range of a between 2 and 12 hectares [41] . They occur in a higher density of between 37 and 72 animals per km2 in primary forests than in logged forests, where the density is between 6 and 16 animals per km2 [42] .

Global distribution
Southeast Asia: SouthMyanmar, Southern Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, Borneo and adjacent islands, Palawan (Philippines). Islands of Langkawi, Tioman, Singapore[43] [44] .

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Map showing the global distribution of the greater mouse deer. Greater mouse deer are native to the areas blocked off in orange. Image is a screen capture from The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species global distribution map. Used in accordance with the Fair Use guidelines.

Diet

Greater mouse deer feed on fallen fruits, leaf shoots and other vegetation in the undergrowth of forests In the Ulu Segama Forest Reserve in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo, the subspecies Tragulus napu borneanus is mainly fruit-eating and frequently consumes fallen figs (Ficus spp.) [45] [46] .

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Two greater mouse deer foraging in undergrowth of a secondary forest in Singapore. Image by Marcus Chua , used with permission.

Activity and Behaviour

How do scientists observe and learn about the greater mouse deer’s activity and behaviour in the wild as they are shy and are only active at night? Apart from physically conducting night spotlighting surveys, scientists also set up camera and video motion-sensor traps to capture images and videos of animals. Also, captive animals in zoos provide a good opportunity to study these animals.

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A camera trap that captures images when it senses motion. Most traps are able to capture images at night
as well as they are equipped with infrared sensors. Image and annotations by Max Khoo.

A footage of a greater mouse deer in Pulau Ubin, captured using a video trap. Video by Max Khoo.

Take a peek into the lives of greater mouse deer: understand how they behave and what do they go about doing daily in the summarised table below[47] [48] [49] !
Activity type
Sub-category of activity type
Description and additional information.
Locomoting
Movement on land
Movement such as walking or running on land.
Movement in water
Swimming and diving in water. Although considered to be dry land animals, the greater mouse deer have been recorded to be able to swim and dive, specifically to avoid predation.
Foraging
Feeding
Eating and chewing on food.
Ruminating
Food is regurgitated and is re-chewed to further break it down.
Suckling
Infant suckle on one of its mum’s four mamme.
Drinking
Using its tongue to lap up water like that of a dog.
Resting
-
Body stationary, can be standing or lying down. Mouse deer, like other ruminants (cows, goats, giraffes etc.), rarely adopts the sitting position.

Standing: Back slightly arched and held slightly higher than its head.
Lying down: Legs tucked under the body, with its head usually kept up.
Grooming
Self-grooming
Grooming itself using its long and mobile tongue.
Interaction
Mating
Male mouse deer mount the female from the back. Mating involves sporadic pelvic thrusting.
Marking on another mouse deer
Males may rub their inter-mandibular gland on a female.
Territorial marking
Touching objects with its inter-mandibular glands to mark it using its secretions.
Nursing
The mum lifts a hind leg to expose her mamme to her infant for suckling.
Vocalising
Produces “squeaking” calls.
Stamping
Stamping with one or both hind hooves simultaneously.
Agonistic behaviour
Interactions among individuals such as biting, chasing, “growling”, and raising its tail.

It is not always easy to study the shy greater mouse deer. As such, inferences of their behaviour can often be drawn by species that are closely related to them.
There have not been much footage of the greater mouse deer in the water. However, swimming have been better documented in the water chevrotain (Hyemoschus aquaticus). It is related to the greater mouse deer and are both under the taxon Tragulus (See Section 11), and can be found in Africa. The video shows the water chevrotain escaping its predator, a crowned eagle, by entering the water.



Lesser mouse deer mating. The male mounts the female from the back.This position is similar for greater mouse deer. Image by Lian Yee Ming, used with permission.

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Predators

In the primary forests of Taman Negara National Park of Peninsular Malaysia, dholes and Asiatic golden cat prey on mouse deer [50] . In Borneo, mouse deer fall prey to clouded leopards and in Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park of Sumatra, Indonesia, Sumatran tigers are predators of the mouse deer [51] [52] .

8. Are there threats and conservation concerns?


Global status and threats
Under the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, the conservation status of greater mouse deer is listed as “Least Concern”. This reasons for this status were because they are still widespread in Borneo and have large altitude ranges which is important as they can occupy forests outside of where rapid forest destruction is occurring. However, this species still faces challenges and threats, with two identified threats being 1) habitat loss and 2) hunting [53] [54] [55] [56] .

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Conservation status of greater mouse deer is listed as "Least Concern". Image is a screen capture from The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. used in accordance with the Fair Use guidelines .

Habitat loss is a widespread problem plaguing many species in the world. In Borneo, although greater mouse deer can occupy logged forests, they occur at a lower density than when in primary forests, hence suggesting that logged forests are sub-optimal habitats. The was due to the lower fruit availability in logged forests compared to primary forests [57] .

Hunting is prevalent in the region where greater mouse deer occurs, and ungulates (hoofed animals) are targets by hunters, with no exception for the greater mouse deer[58] [59] [60] . However, detailed statistics accounting for this is not known as most studies have not identified mouse deer to the species.

Threats in Singapore
Despite the rediscovery of the greater mouse deer on Pulau Ubin in 2008, there are still threats affecting their survivability. As Pulau Ubin is a recreational area for outdoor activities, human disturbance from recreational activities like unregulated night walks and night activities may reduce the habitat and range of the shy greater mouse deer. This is because when their activity cycle is affected, they may be forced to retreat further into the forest[61] . Although being fully protected by Singapore’s law under the Parks and Trees Act as well as the Wild Animals and Birds Act [62] [63] , the greater mouse deer could also be affected by poaching for food as they are considered a delicacy by some. Evidence of the dangers of poaching was present as illegal animal traps were found on Pulau Ubin in 2007 [64] .


9. What are other greater mouse deer look alikes?


Apart from the greater mouse deer, there are other species within the taxon Tragulus that resemble one another (less the greater mouse deer); the Philippine and Vietnam mouse deer.

Comparison with Philippine mouse deer (Tragulus nigricans)
See a mouse deer in Singapore? It is most definitely not a Philippine mouse deer. The Philippine mouse deer, also known as Babalac mouse deer, can only be found in certain islands of the Philippines. It differs from the greater mouse deer in that its upperparts are broadly washed with black and that its neck is mixed fulvous and black[65] .

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The differences between greater and Philippine mouse deer mouse deer. Left image by Chan Kwok Wai, used with permission. Right image by Karlo Yap, used under Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial License. Annotations by Max Khoo.
Comparison with Vietnam mouse deer (Tragulus versicolor)
See a mouse deer in Singapore? It is most definitely also not a Vietnam mouse deer! The Vietnam mouse deer can only be found in southern Vietnam. It differs from the greater mouse deer in that it skulls are much smaller but wider, and with wider bullae and very long nasals. Also, it has a distinct colouration: ochre in the front portion before the shoulders, and in the rest of the potion. The dark median line on the white underparts present in all greater mouse deer is also absent. Lastly, the Vietnam mouse deer does not have a dark collar found in all greater mouse deer[66] .

10. Taxonomy


Type specimen
The greater mouse deer was first described by F. Cuvier in 1822 under the binominal name Moschus napu [67] using a specimen for Sumatra, Indonesia. The type specimen for this species was not preserved[68] [69] .

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The original description (in French) of greater mouse deer in: Bulletin général et universel des annonces et des nouvelles scientifiques: Volume 1.
This resource is Digital Rights Management free.
Taxonavigation
The classification of the greater mouse deer Tragulus napu is listed below[70] . Each taxon is a subset of the taxon above it. Ranks were not included in the classification as they do not contain meaningful taxonomic information.

Animalia
Chordata
Synapsida
Mammalia
Artiodactyla
Tragulidae
Tragulus
Tragulus napu

Taxonomic history
The species and subspecies within the taxon Tragulus were differentiated using the phylogenetic species concept. A species was defined under this concept as “a diagnosable entity, meaning that it differs absolutely from all other species, implying fixed heritable differences”. The more commonly used biological species concept, whereby species are reproductively isolated, was not used as it cannot be applied to the mouse deer since majority of the described taxa are totally allopatric[71] .

The absence of a type specimen for the mouse deer with the oldest name of javanicus, has resulted in a complex taxonomic history within the taxon Tragulus. Various scientists have delimited, named and described the mouse deer in the mid to late 1800s, each suggesting different number of species within the genus Tragulus [72] . The influential name review was by Chasen in 1940s [73] , where Tragulus javanicus was used for the larger mouse deer (known as greater mouse deer Tragulus napu today) and Tragulus kanchil was used for the smaller mouse deer[74] . Subsequently, Van Bemmel (1949) [75] pointed out that the greater mouse deer does not actually exist in Java, and so the name Tragulus javanicus is not valid for the greater mouse deer. As Moschus napu F. Cuvier, 1822, is now the first available name for the greater mouse deer, the name napu was retained and Moschus revised to be Tragulus according to the correct genus[76] .

What does its scientific name mean?
'Tragulus' is formed from Tragos and ulus. Tragos means “goat” in Greek and ulus means “tiny” in Latin.
'napu' is from the Malay name “Napuh”, which also means chevrotain [77] .
T.napu.jpg
In different areas, the greater mouse deer is also known as: greater Indo-Malayan chevrotain, greater oriental chevrotain, larger Malay chevrotain, larger mousedeer or napu [78] .

Subspecies
There have been much debates over the different number of subspecies present for the greater mouse deer. This is largely due to the different size, colouration, cranial and skeletal characters of the species. Below lists the subspecies of greater mouse deer as recognised by Meijaard and Grooves (2004) [79] . Due to the lack of reliable sources, there are no images of each subspecies of greater mouse deer shown.
Subspecies name
Described by:
Locality
Tragulus napu napu
(Cuvier, 1822)
Borneo, Laut (SE Borneo), Serasan, Bangka, Sumatra, Malay and Thai Peninsula, Burma, Langkawi and Pangkor
Tragulus napu bunguranensis
Miller, 1901
Bunguran
Tragulus napu rufulus
Miller, 1900
Batam, Galang, Setoko (= Sekikir), Bulan, Tioman, Bintang, Lingga, Bakong, Sebangka
Tragulus napu banguei
Chasen & Kloss, 1931
Banggi, Balembangan
Tragulus napu neubronneri
Sody, 1931
North Sumatra
Tragulus napu niasis
Lyon, 1961
Nias
Tragulus napu terutus
Thomas & Wroughton, 1909
Terutau
11. Phylogeny

Mouse deer (Tragulidae) fall under the taxon Artiodactyla, and belong to an ancient group of ungulates with a history dating back to the Miocene (23.03 to 5.3 million years ago). They are ruminants, and are regarded as the sister-group of Pecorans[80] [81] .
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Phylogenetic tree of the taxons in Artiodactyla. Image from Clifford, 2009, annotations by Max Khoo. How the phylogenetic tree was derived was not included in the study and not publicly available. Image permission pending, used in accordance with the Fair Use guidelines.
There are three taxon groups within Tragulidae. They are Hyemoschus, Moschiola and Tragulus [82] . Prior to 2004, there were four recognised species within these three groups [83] . In 2004, T. williamsoni and T. kanchil was split from T. javanicus, and T. versicolor and T. nigricans were split form T. napu [84] . In 2005, M. kathygre and M. indica were split from M. memina[85] . Hence, 10 extant species of mouse deer exists today.

Tragulidae:
Hyemoschus
Moschiola
Tragulus

Very little information on the phylogenetic relationship within Tragulidae exists. Apart from the first study on the genetic relationships between populations of T. javanicus and T. napu, in 2004 there are no other published studies [86] [87] .

In the only phylogenetic study of mouse deer, 29 mouse deer samples (four T. napu and 25 T. javanicus) from various parts of the Indomalayan region were used [88] . Within the four T. napu samples, three were of Borneo origins and one was from Tioman island. Two phylogenetic trees based on molecular data (Whole region of mitochondrial cytochrome b) was used in the analysis. Maximum parsimony with 1000 bootstrap replications and neighbour-joining were the optimality criteria for the tree[89] .
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Left: Neighbour-joining phylogenetic tree. Right: Maximum parsimony tree. Image from Endo et al., 2004, annotations by Max Khoo.Image permission pending, used in accordance with the Fair Use guidelines.

The results were coherent with the existing established separation of the greater and lesser mouse deer. Between the two greater mouse deer regions sampled, the three samples from Borneo have a haplotype that is weakly divergent from that of the sample from Tioman Island[90] .

12. Useful links


  1. Greater mouse deer in Encyclopedia of Life
  2. Greater mouse deer in The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
  3. Greater mouse deer in Animal Diversity Web
  4. Greater mouse deer in Wildlife Singapore
  5. Greater mouse deer in GenBank Database
  6. Greater mouse deer in Animals and Plants of Singapore
  7. Submit your sightings in Mammal Sightings in Singapore
  8. Other species pages from LSM4254 class in Taxo4254

13. References


Page done by: Max Khoo De Yuan (khoomax[at]u.nus.edu)


GMD GIf.gif


Images and Videos used, in order from top to bottom, sorted by section.

Title:
[i] Chua, M., N. Sivasothi & R. Teo, 2009. Rediscovery of greater mouse deer, Tragulus napu (Mammalia: Artiodactyla: Tragulidae) in Pulau Ubin, Singapore. Nature in Singapore, 2: 373–378.

Section 1: A Mouse , a Deer or a Mouse Deer?
[i] "Greater mouse deer comparison" by Max Khoo De Yuan. Personal image.

Section 2: What does a greater mouse deer look like?
[i] Chua, M., N. Sivasothi & R. Teo, 2009. Rediscovery of greater mouse deer, Tragulus napu (Mammalia: Artiodactyla: Tragulidae) in Pulau Ubin, Singapore. Nature in Singapore, 2: 373–378.
[ii] "Lesser mouse deer", by Hans De Bisschop, Flickr. URL:
https://www.flickr.com/photos/27531601@N03/13305912525/in/photolist-HYq9M-kdTC7N-mgNhdV-a26Z4d-hWbh7d-mgQ7Mf-crdsmu-8zCzsC-ErCC47-EHhdnq-8zCznf-tGfzxa-45LL6f-GxyANC-DW34h1-7Q4Ukj-nREUqo (Accessed on 6 Nov 2016)
[iii]”Greater mouse deer” by Max Khoo De Yuan. Personal image.
[iv] Chua, M., N. Sivasothi & R. Teo, 2009. Rediscovery of greater mouse deer, Tragulus napu (Mammalia: Artiodactyla: Tragulidae) in Pulau Ubin, Singapore. Nature in Singapore, 2: 373–378.
[v] Chua, M., N. Sivasothi & R. Teo, 2009. Rediscovery of greater mouse deer, Tragulus napu (Mammalia: Artiodactyla: Tragulidae) in Pulau Ubin, Singapore. Nature in Singapore, 2: 373–378.
[vi] Left: “Greater mouse deer” by Lian Yee Ming. Personal image. Right: “Greater mouse deer” by Marcus Chua. Personal image

Section 3: How to distinguish between the two mouse deer species in Singapore?
[i] Left: “Greater mouse deer” by Marcus Chua. Personal image. Right: “Lesser mouse deer” by Lian Yee Ming. Personal image
[ii] Chua, M., N. Sivasothi & R. Teo, 2009. Rediscovery of greater mouse deer, Tragulus napu (Mammalia: Artiodactyla: Tragulidae) in Pulau Ubin, Singapore. Nature in Singapore, 2: 373–378.
[iii] “Mammal anatomical images”, by Phil Myers, Animal Diversity Web. URL: http://animaldiversity.org/collections/contributors/anatomical_images/family_pages/artiodactyla/tragulidae/ (Accessed on 6 Nov 2016)

Section 4: Were there always mouse deer in Singapore?
[i] “Singapore location map”, by Wikimedia commons, Wikimedia Commons. URL: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Singapore_location_map.svg (Accessed on 6 Nov 2016)

Section 5: Let's go mouse deer spotting!
[i] Left: “Greater mouse deer” by Lian Yee Ming. Personal image. Right: “Lesser mouse deer” by Lian Yee Ming. Personal image

Section 6: Learn about the role of mouse deer in our traditions and beliefs
[i] “Pada Zaman Dahulu - Sang Kancil”, by Astro Ceria, Astro Ceria YouTube Channel, 1 May 2012. URL: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=An2gIG9im8M (Accessed on 6 Nov 2016)
[ii] “Learning English by Stories - Crocodile and Mouse Deer”, by Michael Wong, Michael Wong YouTube Channel, 7 Jun 2013. URL: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Moc4mLhvaRk (Accessed on 6 Nov 2016)

Section 7: Everything you need to know about greater mouse deer biology and ecology
[i] “IUCN Red List Map of Tragulus napu” by IUCN, IUCN. URL: http://maps.iucnredlist.org/map.html?id=41781 (Accessed on 6 Nov 2016)
[ii] Chua, M., N. Sivasothi & R. Teo, 2009. Rediscovery of greater mouse deer, Tragulus napu (Mammalia: Artiodactyla: Tragulidae) in Pulau Ubin, Singapore. Nature in Singapore, 2: 373–378.
[iii]”Camera trap” by Max Khoo De Yuan. Personal image.
[iv] "Greater mouse deer in Singapore" by Max Khoo. Max Khoo YouTube Channel, 30 Oct 2016. URL: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=spk54VhUDug (Accessed on 6 Nov 2016)
[v] “Eagle vs. Water Chevrotain | National Geographic” by National Geographic. National Geographic YouTube Channel, 26 Jul 2007. URL: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=13GQbT2ljxs (Accessed on 6 Nov 2016)
[vi] “Lesser mouse deer mating” by Lian Yee Ming. Personal image

Section 8: Are there threats and conservation concerns?
[i] “IUCN Red List of Threatened Species” by IUCN, IUCN. URL: http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/41781/0 (Accessed on 6 Nov 2016)

Section 9: What are other greater mouse deer look alikes?
[i] Left: Chua, M., N. Sivasothi & R. Teo, 2009. Rediscovery of greater mouse deer, Tragulus napu (Mammalia: Artiodactyla: Tragulidae) in Pulau Ubin, Singapore. Nature in Singapore, 2: 373–378. Right: “Philippine Mouse Deer (Smallest Deer in the world)”, by Karlo Yap, Flickr: https://www.flickr.com/photos/ytk23/2365351175/in/photolist-4Ua7MP-4HbUwt-5PchZg-64Jq9K-32e8Mj-48GYDt-93ewab-95Ahim-7UWKz3-fztA5M-cq8xFy-32e7wd-64NB2m-329xi8-C8847C-rFbgtJ-BBJKhw-64NBrq-9cX5uZ-pinGm4-roGAzY-93evGo-4sYJfC-2HAe7g-roHzyE-6MmRaw-4B23ov-d6Np9m-4B23uP-64JjmF-95AgW3-64NAWJ-4B23gt-FNr4po-DzDSKW-CEsBWL-DtGSme-DaRvXN-DBY6Uc-DryxvY-CEsDcS-DBY8Nx-DtGSQa-DBY9mB-Dryyjm-xjtafy-uoejFa-MnGYEy-LjYjiU-iJh5oW (Accessed on 6 Nov 2016)

Section 10: Taxonomy
[i] “le Chevrotain Napu de Sumatra”, by Bureau du Bulletin. URL: https://play.google.com/store/books/details/Andr%C3%A9_Etienne_Just_Pascal_Joseph_Fran%C3%A7ois_d_Audeba?id=yUtNAAAAcAAJ (Accessed on 6 Nov 2016)
[ii] "Tragulus napu" by Max Khoo De Yuan. Personal image.

Section 11: Phylogeny
[i] Clifford, A. B., 2009. Evolution and mechanics of unguligrady in artiodactyls. Doctoral dissertation, Brown University.
[ii] Endo, H., K. Fukuta, J. Kimura, M. Sasaki, Y. Hayashi & T. Oshida, 2004. Phylogenetic relationships among populations of the mouse deer in the Southeast Asian Region from the nucleotide sequence of cytochrome b gene. Mammal Study, 29(2): 119-123.

Section 13: References
[i] Adapted from: Chua, M., N. Sivasothi & R. Teo, 2009. Rediscovery of greater mouse deer, Tragulus napu (Mammalia: Artiodactyla: Tragulidae) in Pulau Ubin, Singapore. Nature in Singapore, 2: 373–378

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