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Thursday, December 8

  1. page Greater Mouse Deer edited {GMD (11).jpg} Never heard of a greater mouse deer before? Here are 4 interesting facts about th…
    {GMD (11).jpg}
    Never heard of a greater mouse deer before? Here are 4 interesting facts about this unique animal!
    i)1) Neither a mouse ornor a deer
    The greater mouse deer is part of a distinctive group of animals known as chevrotains (See Section 1)
    ii)2) Greater mouse
    ...
    to be extinct,extinct in Singapore, but were
    In 2008, the greater mouse deer were rediscovered on the island of Pulau Ubin (See Section 4)
    iii)3) Featured in
    Known to be quick-witted and intelligent animals, mouse deer were featured in many stories of Malay folklore (See Section 6)
    iv)4) Greater mouse
    They have the ability to dive and stay underwater to avoid being captured by predators (See Section 7)
    Interested to find out more? Read on to discover more amazing facts about the greater mouse deer!
    ...
    Sang Kanchil, the main character of Pada Zaman Dahulu (Once Upon A Time) an animated mini-series told in Malay that brings to life the Malaysian folk stories of a clever mousedeer and other jungle creatures. Image is a screen capture from Pada Zaman Dahulu - Sang Kancil.Used in accordance with the Fair Use guidelines.
    Another version of the folklore: Sang Kanchil and the crocodiles.
    ...
    biology and ecology?ecology
    Below is all the information currently available about the greater mouse deer. Studies were mostly done on greater mouse deer overseas, hence local context is lacking.
    Habitat
    (view changes)
    4:14 pm

Wednesday, November 16

  1. page Greater Mouse Deer edited {GMD (11).jpg} Never heard of a greater mouse deer before? Here are 4 interesting facts about th…
    {GMD (11).jpg}
    Never heard of a greater mouse deer before? Here are 4 interesting facts about this unique animal!
    ...
    Neither a micemouse or a
    The greater mouse deer is part of a distinctive group of animals known as chevrotains (See Section 1)
    ii) Greater mouse deer were once thought to be extinct, but were rediscovered 80 years later
    (view changes)
    5:13 am
  2. page Greater Mouse Deer edited {GMD (11).jpg} ... facts about these this unique animals! animal! i) Neither a mice or …
    {GMD (11).jpg}
    ...
    facts about thesethis unique animals!animal!
    i) Neither a mice or a deer
    The greater mouse deer is part of a distinctive group of animals known as chevrotains (See Section 1)
    (view changes)
    3:23 am
  3. page Greater Mouse Deer edited ... Sang Kanchil, the main character of Pada Zaman Dahulu (Once Upon A Time) an animated mini-seri…
    ...
    Sang Kanchil, the main character of Pada Zaman Dahulu (Once Upon A Time) an animated mini-series told in Malay that brings to life the Malaysian folk stories of a clever mousedeer and other jungle creatures. Image is a screen capture from Pada Zaman Dahulu - Sang Kancil.Used in accordance with the Fair Use guidelines.
    Another version of the folklore: Sang Kanchil and the crocodiles.
    ...
    biology and ecologyecology?
    Below is all the information currently available about the greater mouse deer. Studies were mostly done on greater mouse deer overseas, hence local context is lacking.
    Habitat
    (view changes)
    1:53 am
  4. page Greater Mouse Deer edited ... i) Neither a mice or a deer The greater mouse deer is part of a distinctive group of animals …
    ...
    i) Neither a mice or a deer
    The greater mouse deer is part of a distinctive group of animals known as chevrotains (See Section 1)
    ...
    Greater mouse deersdeer were once
    ...
    greater mouse deersdeer were rediscovered
    iii) Featured in Malay folklore
    ...
    animals, mouse deersdeer were featured
    ...
    Greater mouse deersdeer are capable
    They have the ability to dive and stay underwater to avoid being captured by predators (See Section 7)
    ...
    greater mouse deers!deer!
    1. A Mouse, a Deer or a Mouse Deer?
    1The greater mouse deer (Tragulus napu) belongs to a group of animals known as chevrotains, which means “little goat” in French.
    ...
    from true deersdeer in that
    {Comparison.jpg} Relative sizes of humans, sambar deer, greater mouse deer and house mouse. The sambar deer and house mouse are animals that can be found in Singapore. The sizes for SH and HB for the 3 animals are based on the maximum recorded size for the animal .
    ...
    of mouse deersdeer can be
    ...
    because mouse deersdeer are active
    2. What does a greater mouse deer look like?
    Physical characteristics
    Adult
    ...
    Male mouse deersdeer have enlarged
    {GMD (4).jpg} An adult greater mouse deer. Image by Marcus Chua, annotations by Max Khoo. Used with permission.
    {LMD (5).JPG}
    A photo showing the canine of a lesser mouse deer that extends out of the upper jaw. This canine is also present in the greater mouse deer.Image by Hans De Bisschop, annotations by Max Khoo. Used under Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial License.
    Mouse deersdeer have an
    ...
    male mouse deersdeer rub the
    {GMD (6).jpg} A camera trap image showing a male greater mouse deer with the canineand swollen inter-mandibular gland. Image and annotations by Max Khoo.
    Juvenile
    ...
    Greater mouse deersdeer reach sexual
    {GMD (2).JPG} An adult greater mouse deer (foreground) and its fawn (background).Photo by Marcus Chua, used with permission.
    Colouration
    ...
    The upperpart of the greater mouse deer’s fur is described as mottled orange-buff and grey-buff with blackish tips, with varying intensity of coloration between individuals. The underparts are white, normally lacking brown stripes on its belly .
    Neck, throat and upper chest patterns
    ...
    greater mouse deersdeer have white
    {GMD (5).jpg} A greater mouse deer with its five white stripes clearly shown.Image by Chan Kwok Wai, used with permission. Annotations by Max Khoo.
    Variation of body size, colouration and skin patterns within species
    ...
    greater mouse deersdeer vary widely,
    ...
    greater mouse deersdeer have a
    ...
    greater mouse deersdeer vary between
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    greater mouse deersdeer showing varying
    3. How to distinguish between the two mouse deer species in Singapore?
    Comparison with lesser mouse deer (Tragulus kanchil)
    ...
    Typical throat pattern of greater and lesser mouse deer. Each line represent a throat stripe in each species.There are three throat stripes for the lesser mouse deer and five throat stripes for the greater mouse deer.Image and annotations by Marcus Chua, used with permission.
    {GMD (8).jpg} Here shows a skull of the greater mouse deer. Many studies trying to differentiate between mouse deer species have focused on analysing the dimensions of various parts of their skull. Image by Phil Myers. Used under Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial License.
    ...
    always mouse deersdeer in Singapore?
    ...
    greater mouse deersdeer were collected
    ...
    greater mouse deersdeer were also
    {SGMap.jpg} Map showing the distribution of lesser and greater mouse deer in Singapore.Base map from Wikimedia Commons, Used under Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial License. Annotations by Max Khoo.
    In 2008, the greater mouse deer was rediscovered during a mammal study in Pulau Ubin, an island off the North-Eastern coast of Singapore. Following that were several more sightings on the same island, captured on camera traps as well as photographed during transects conducted during the study .
    ...
    sighting mouse deersdeer after multiple
    ...
    as mouse deersdeer are shy
    ...
    the mouse deersdeer could have
    ...
    of mouse deers).deer).
    5. Let's go mouse deer spotting!
    As both mouse deer species in Singapore are active at night, the chances of spotting them in the wild in Singapore is very slim. Your best bet would probably to head down to the Singapore Zoo, where they have both the lesser and greater mouse deer. You can even walk alongside the lesser mouse deer in the Fragile Forest exhibit, an exhibit that recreates a rainforest habitat where various animals are free to roam!
    ...
    If you do spot a mouse deer in Singapore, do record your sighting at Mammal Sightings in Singapore webpage.
    Sighting records are important - over time, these can contribute to public awareness and education, suggest research projects and supplement research in conservation and management projects.
    ...
    of mouse deersdeer in our
    ...
    beliefs
    6Mouse deersdeer (both greater
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    smart mouse deersdeer are in
    Sang Kanchil (Mr. Mouse deer) and the crocodiles
    Sang Kanchil was travelling through the forest when he came to a river full of crocodiles. He wondered how to get across, and soon though of a plan. Going to the bank he called:
    ...
    Another version of the folklore: Sang Kanchil and the crocodiles.
    7. Everything you need to know about greater mouse deer biology and ecology
    ...
    greater mouse deersdeer overseas, hence
    Habitat
    Greater mouse deersdeer are solitary
    In the primary forests of Borneo, the greater mouse deer have a home range of a between 2 and 12 hectares . They occur in a higher density of between 37 and 72 animals per km2 in primary forests than in logged forests, where the density is between 6 and 16 animals per km2 .
    Global distribution
    Southeast Asia: SouthMyanmar, Southern Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, Borneo and adjacent islands, Palawan (Philippines). Islands of Langkawi, Tioman, Singapore .
    {Map1.JPG}
    ...
    Greater mouse deersdeer are native
    Diet
    Greater mouse deersdeer feed on
    ...
    greater mouse deersdeer foraging in
    Activity and Behaviour
    How do scientists observe and learn about the greater mouse deer’s activity and behaviour in the wild as they are shy and are only active at night? Apart from physically conducting night spotlighting surveys, scientists also set up camera and video motion-sensor traps to capture images and videos of animals. Also, captive animals in zoos provide a good opportunity to study these animals.
    {Trap.jpg} A camera trap that captures images when it senses motion. Most traps are able to capture images at nightas well as they are equipped with infrared sensors. Image and annotations by Max Khoo.
    A footage of a greater mouse deer in Pulau Ubin, captured using a video trap. Video by Max Khoo.
    ...
    greater mouse deers:deer: understand how
    Activity type
    Sub-category of activity type
    ...
    Resting
    -
    ...
    down. Mouse deers,deer, like other
    Standing: Back slightly arched and held slightly higher than its head.
    Lying down: Legs tucked under the body, with its head usually kept up.
    ...
    It is not always easy to study the shy greater mouse deer. As such, inferences of their behaviour can often be drawn by species that are closely related to them.
    7There have not been much footage of the greater mouse deer in the water. However, swimming have been better documented in the water chevrotain (Hyemoschus aquaticus). It is related to the greater mouse deer and are both under the taxon Tragulus (See Section 11), and can be found in Africa. The video shows the water chevrotain escaping its predator, a crowned eagle, by entering the water.
    Lesser mouse deersdeer mating. The
    ...
    greater mouse deers.deer. Image by
    {LMD (2).jpg}
    Predators
    ...
    on mouse deersdeer . In Borneo, mouse deersdeer fall prey
    ...
    the mouse deersdeer .
    8. Are there threats and conservation concerns?
    Global status and threats
    Under the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, the conservation status of greater mouse deer is listed as “Least Concern”. This reasons for this status were because they are still widespread in Borneo and have large altitude ranges which is important as they can occupy forests outside of where rapid forest destruction is occurring. However, this species still faces challenges and threats, with two identified threats being 1) habitat loss and 2) hunting .
    {IUCN.JPG} Conservation status of greater mouse deer is listed as "Least Concern". Image is a screen capture from The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. used in accordance with the Fair Use guidelines .
    ...
    greater mouse deersdeer can occupy
    ...
    identified mouse deersdeer to the
    Threats in Singapore
    Despite the rediscovery of the greater mouse deer on Pulau Ubin in 2008, there are still threats affecting their survivability. As Pulau Ubin is a recreational area for outdoor activities, human disturbance from recreational activities like unregulated night walks and night activities may reduce the habitat and range of the shy greater mouse deer. This is because when their activity cycle is affected, they may be forced to retreat further into the forest . Although being fully protected by Singapore’s law under the Parks and Trees Act as well as the Wild Animals and Birds Act , the greater mouse deer could also be affected by poaching for food as they are considered a delicacy by some. Evidence of the dangers of poaching was present as illegal animal traps were found on Pulau Ubin in 2007 .
    ...
    {GMD-PMD.jpg} The differences between greater and Philippine mouse deer mouse deer. Left image by Chan Kwok Wai, used with permission. Right image by Karlo Yap, used under Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial License. Annotations by Max Khoo.
    Comparison with Vietnam mouse deer (Tragulus versicolor)
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    greater mouse deersdeer is also
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    greater mouse deersdeer .
    10. Taxonomy
    10Type specimen
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    Tragulus napu
    Taxonomic history
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    the mouse deersdeer since majority
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    the mouse deersdeer in the
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    larger mouse deersdeer (known as
    What does its scientific name mean?
    'Tragulus' is formed from Tragos and ulus. Tragos means “goat” in Greek and ulus means “tiny” in Latin.
    ...
    {T.napu.jpg} In different areas, the greater mouse deer is also known as: greater Indo-Malayan chevrotain, greater oriental chevrotain, larger Malay chevrotain, larger mousedeer or napu .
    Subspecies
    ...
    greater mouse deersdeer as recognised
    Subspecies name
    Described by:
    ...
    Terutau
    11. Phylogeny
    11Mouse deersdeer (Tragulidae) fall
    {Phylo.jpg} Phylogenetic tree of the taxons in Artiodactyla. Image from Clifford, 2009, annotations by Max Khoo. How the phylogenetic tree was derived was not included in the study and not publicly available. Image permission pending, used in accordance with the Fair Use guidelines.
    There are three taxon groups within Tragulidae. They are Hyemoschus, Moschiola and Tragulus . Prior to 2004, there were four recognised species within these three groups . In 2004, T. williamsoni and T. kanchil was split from T. javanicus, and T. versicolor and T. nigricans were split form T. napu . In 2005, M. kathygre and M. indica were split from M. memina . Hence, 10 extant species of mouse deer exists today.
    ...
    Williamson's mouse deer, Tragulus williamsoni
    Very little information on the phylogenetic relationship within Tragulidae exists. Apart from the first study on the genetic relationships between populations of T. javanicus and T. napu, in 2004 there are no other published studies .
    ...
    of mouse deers,deer, 29 mouse
    {Phylo (1).jpg} Left: Neighbour-joining phylogenetic tree. Right: Maximum parsimony tree. Image from Endo et al., 2004, annotations by Max Khoo.Image permission pending, used in accordance with the Fair Use guidelines.
    The results were coherent with the existing established separation of the greater and lesser mouse deer. Between the two greater mouse deer regions sampled, the three samples from Borneo have a haplotype that is weakly divergent from that of the sample from Tioman Island .
    ...
    [ii] Chua, M., N. Sivasothi & R. Teo, 2009. Rediscovery of greater mouse deer, Tragulus napu (Mammalia: Artiodactyla: Tragulidae) in Pulau Ubin, Singapore. Nature in Singapore, 2: 373–378.
    [iii] “Mammal anatomical images”, by Phil Myers, Animal Diversity Web. URL: http://animaldiversity.org/collections/contributors/anatomical_images/family_pages/artiodactyla/tragulidae/ (Accessed on 6 Nov 2016)
    ...
    always mouse deersdeer in Singapore?
    [i] “Singapore location map”, by Wikimedia commons, Wikimedia Commons. URL: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Singapore_location_map.svg (Accessed on 6 Nov 2016)
    Section 5: Let's go mouse deer spotting!
    [i] Left: “Greater mouse deer” by Lian Yee Ming. Personal image. Right: “Lesser mouse deer” by Lian Yee Ming. Personal image
    ...
    of mouse deersdeer in our
    [i] “Pada Zaman Dahulu - Sang Kancil”, by Astro Ceria, Astro Ceria YouTube Channel, 1 May 2012. URL: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=An2gIG9im8M (Accessed on 6 Nov 2016)
    [ii] “Learning English by Stories - Crocodile and Mouse Deer”, by Michael Wong, Michael Wong YouTube Channel, 7 Jun 2013. URL: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Moc4mLhvaRk (Accessed on 6 Nov 2016)
    ...
    [iv] "Greater mouse deer in Singapore" by Max Khoo. Max Khoo YouTube Channel, 30 Oct 2016. URL: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=spk54VhUDug (Accessed on 6 Nov 2016)
    [v] “Eagle vs. Water Chevrotain | National Geographic” by National Geographic. National Geographic YouTube Channel, 26 Jul 2007. URL: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=13GQbT2ljxs (Accessed on 6 Nov 2016)
    ...
    “Lesser mouse deersdeer mating” by
    Section 8: Are there threats and conservation concerns?
    [i] “IUCN Red List of Threatened Species” by IUCN, IUCN. URL: http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/41781/0 (Accessed on 6 Nov 2016)
    (view changes)
    1:36 am

Tuesday, November 15

  1. page Greater Mouse Deer edited ... 1The greater mouse deer (Tragulus napu) belongs to a group of animals known as chevrotains, wh…
    ...
    1The greater mouse deer (Tragulus napu) belongs to a group of animals known as chevrotains, which means “little goat” in French.
    However, it is neither a goat, a mouse nor a true deer! The use of “mouse” refers to its small body size. They are different from true deers in that they have triangular patterns on their upper jaws and that the males lack antlers .
    {Comparison.jpg}
    The
    Relative sizes of humans, sambar deer, greater mouse deer and house mouse. The sambar deer
    Two species of mouse deers can be found in Singapore, with the other being the lesser mouse deer (Tragulus kanchil). Most Singaporeans may not have seen a mouse deer before, likely because mouse deers are active at night, are extremely shy and are restricted to forests that are relatively undisturbed by people like the Central Catchment Nature Reserve, Bukit Timah Nature Reserve and Pulau Ubin .
    2. What does a greater mouse deer look like?
    (view changes)
    5:24 pm
  2. page Greater Mouse Deer edited ... Adult A fully grown greater mouse deer’s head to the body measures 52-60cm long, its hind foo…
    ...
    Adult
    A fully grown greater mouse deer’s head to the body measures 52-60cm long, its hind foot up to 15.7cm in length. It has a shoulder height of 30- 35cm, has a tail of 6 to 10cm and weighs about 3.5-6 kilograms. Male mouse deers have enlarged lower canines that extends out of the upper jaw. Females have an udder in the middle of their hind legs with four mamme .
    ...
    Marcus Chua, usedannotations by Max Khoo. Used with permission.
    {LMD (5).JPG}
    A photo showing the canine of a lesser mouse deer that extends out of the upper jaw. This canine is also present in the greater mouse deer.Image by Hans De Bisschop, annotations by Max Khoo. Used under Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial License.
    ...
    5. Let's go mouse deer spotting!
    As both mouse deer species in Singapore are active at night, the chances of spotting them in the wild in Singapore is very slim. Your best bet would probably to head down to the Singapore Zoo, where they have both the lesser and greater mouse deer. You can even walk alongside the lesser mouse deer in the Fragile Forest exhibit, an exhibit that recreates a rainforest habitat where various animals are free to roam!
    ...
    Yee Ming, usedannotations by Max Khoo. Used with permission.
    However, if you really are determined to see a mouse deer in the wild, do take note of the opening hours of the Central Catchment Nature Reserve and Bukit Timah Nature Reserve if you are intending to look for the lesser mouse deer. Do also remember to stick to the trails and not veer off the path as that will disturb the forest.
    How can you help with mouse deer research in Singapore?
    ...
    Section 10: Taxonomy
    [i] “le Chevrotain Napu de Sumatra”, by Bureau du Bulletin. URL: https://play.google.com/store/books/details/Andr%C3%A9_Etienne_Just_Pascal_Joseph_Fran%C3%A7ois_d_Audeba?id=yUtNAAAAcAAJ (Accessed on 6 Nov 2016)
    ...
    Personal image.
    Section 11: Phylogeny
    [i] Clifford, A. B., 2009. Evolution and mechanics of unguligrady in artiodactyls. Doctoral dissertation, Brown University.
    [ii] Endo, H., K. Fukuta, J. Kimura, M. Sasaki, Y. Hayashi & T. Oshida, 2004. Phylogenetic relationships among populations of the mouse deer in the Southeast Asian Region from the nucleotide sequence of cytochrome b gene. Mammal Study, 29(2): 119-123.
    Section 13: References
    [i] Adapted from: Chua, M., N. Sivasothi & R. Teo, 2009. Rediscovery of greater mouse deer, Tragulus napu (Mammalia: Artiodactyla: Tragulidae) in Pulau Ubin, Singapore. Nature in Singapore, 2: 373–378

    Literature cited.
    Francis, C. M., 2008. A Field Guide to the Mammals of South-east Asia, New Holland Publishers, UK. 392 pp.
    (view changes)
    5:12 pm
  3. page Greater Mouse Deer edited ... However, it is neither a goat, a mouse nor a true deer! The use of “mouse” refers to its small…
    ...
    However, it is neither a goat, a mouse nor a true deer! The use of “mouse” refers to its small body size. They are different from true deers in that they have triangular patterns on their upper jaws and that the males lack antlers .
    {Comparison.jpg}
    ...
    for the animal.animal .
    Two species of mouse deers can be found in Singapore, with the other being the lesser mouse deer (Tragulus kanchil). Most Singaporeans may not have seen a mouse deer before, likely because mouse deers are active at night, are extremely shy and are restricted to forests that are relatively undisturbed by people like the Central Catchment Nature Reserve, Bukit Timah Nature Reserve and Pulau Ubin .
    2. What does a greater mouse deer look like?
    ...
    {IUCN.JPG} Conservation status of greater mouse deer is listed as "Least Concern". Image is a screen capture from The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. used in accordance with the Fair Use guidelines .
    Habitat loss is a widespread problem plaguing many species in the world. In Borneo, although greater mouse deers can occupy logged forests, they occur at a lower density than when in primary forests, hence suggesting that logged forests are sub-optimal habitats. The was due to the lower fruit availability in logged forests compared to primary forests .
    ...
    mouse deer . . However, detailed
    Threats in Singapore
    Despite the rediscovery of the greater mouse deer on Pulau Ubin in 2008, there are still threats affecting their survivability. As Pulau Ubin is a recreational area for outdoor activities, human disturbance from recreational activities like unregulated night walks and night activities may reduce the habitat and range of the shy greater mouse deer. This is because when their activity cycle is affected, they may be forced to retreat further into the forest . Although being fully protected by Singapore’s law under the Parks and Trees Act as well as the Wild Animals and Birds Act , the greater mouse deer could also be affected by poaching for food as they are considered a delicacy by some. Evidence of the dangers of poaching was present as illegal animal traps were found on Pulau Ubin in 2007 .
    ...
    10. Taxonomy
    10Type specimen
    ...
    not preserved . .
    {Type.jpg}
    The original description (in French) of greater mouse deer in: Bulletin général et universel des annonces et des nouvelles scientifiques: Volume 1.This resource is Digital Rights Management free.
    Taxonavigation
    ...
    listed below [6].. Each taxon
    Animalia
    Chordata
    ...
    Tragulus napu
    Taxonomic history
    ...
    totally allopatric [9]..
    The absence
    ...
    genus Tragulus [9]. . The influential
    ...
    smaller mouse deer[9].deer . Subsequently, Van
    ...
    correct genus [9]..
    What does its scientific name mean?
    'Tragulus' is formed from Tragos and ulus. Tragos means “goat” in Greek and ulus means “tiny” in Latin.
    ...
    {T.napu.jpg} In different areas, the greater mouse deer is also known as: greater Indo-Malayan chevrotain, greater oriental chevrotain, larger Malay chevrotain, larger mousedeer or napu .
    Subspecies
    ...
    Grooves (2004) [9]. . Due to
    Subspecies name
    Described by:
    ...
    11. Phylogeny
    11Mouse deers (Tragulidae) fall under the taxon Artiodactyla, and belong to an ancient group of ungulates with a history dating back to the Miocene (23.03 to 5.3 million years ago). They are ruminants, and are regarded as the sister-group of Pecorans .
    ...
    from Clifford, 2009[26],2009, annotations by
    ...
    and Tragulus [9]. . Prior to
    ...
    three groups [24]. . In 2004,
    ...
    T. napu [9]. . In 2005,
    Tragulidae:
    Hyemoschus
    ...
    Williamson's mouse deer, Tragulus williamsoni
    Very little information on the phylogenetic relationship within Tragulidae exists. Apart from the first study on the genetic relationships between populations of T. javanicus and T. napu, in 2004 there are no other published studies .
    ...
    were used [29]. . Within the
    ...
    the tree [29]..
    {Phylo (1).jpg}
    ...
    et al., 2004 [29],2004, annotations by
    ...
    lesser mouse deer [29].deer. Between the
    ...
    Tioman Island [29]..
    12. Useful links
    Greater mouse deer in Encyclopedia of Life
    ...
    Title:
    [i] Chua, M., N. Sivasothi & R. Teo, 2009. Rediscovery of greater mouse deer, Tragulus napu (Mammalia: Artiodactyla: Tragulidae) in Pulau Ubin, Singapore. Nature in Singapore, 2: 373–378.
    Section 2: What does its scientific name mean?1: A Mouse , a Deer or a Mouse Deer?
    [i] "Tragulus napu""Greater mouse deer comparison" by Max
    ...
    image.
    Section 3: Diagnosis and Description2: What does a greater mouse deer look like?
    [i] Chua, M., N. Sivasothi & R. Teo, 2009. Rediscovery of greater mouse deer, Tragulus napu (Mammalia: Artiodactyla: Tragulidae) in Pulau Ubin, Singapore. Nature in Singapore, 2: 373–378.
    [ii] "Lesser mouse deer", by Hans De Bisschop, Flickr. URL:
    ...
    [v] Chua, M., N. Sivasothi & R. Teo, 2009. Rediscovery of greater mouse deer, Tragulus napu (Mammalia: Artiodactyla: Tragulidae) in Pulau Ubin, Singapore. Nature in Singapore, 2: 373–378.
    [vi] Left: “Greater mouse deer” by Lian Yee Ming. Personal image. Right: “Greater mouse deer” by Marcus Chua. Personal image
    Section 4: Is this a greater3: How to distinguish between the two mouse deer?deer species in Singapore?
    [i] Left: “Greater mouse deer” by Marcus Chua. Personal image. Right: “Lesser mouse deer” by Lian Yee Ming. Personal image
    [ii] Chua, M., N. Sivasothi & R. Teo, 2009. Rediscovery of greater mouse deer, Tragulus napu (Mammalia: Artiodactyla: Tragulidae) in Pulau Ubin, Singapore. Nature in Singapore, 2: 373–378.
    [iii] “Mammal anatomical images”, by Phil Myers, Animal Diversity Web. URL: http://animaldiversity.org/collections/contributors/anatomical_images/family_pages/artiodactyla/tragulidae/ (Accessed on 6 Nov 2016)
    [iv] Left: Chua, M., N. Sivasothi & R. Teo, 2009. Rediscovery of greaterSection 4: Were there always mouse deer, Tragulus napu (Mammalia: Artiodactyla: Tragulidae)deers in Pulau Ubin, Singapore. Nature in Singapore, 2: 373–378. Right: “Philippine Mouse Deer (Smallest Deer in the world)”, by Karlo Yap, Flickr: https://www.flickr.com/photos/ytk23/2365351175/in/photolist-4Ua7MP-4HbUwt-5PchZg-64Jq9K-32e8Mj-48GYDt-93ewab-95Ahim-7UWKz3-fztA5M-cq8xFy-32e7wd-64NB2m-329xi8-C8847C-rFbgtJ-BBJKhw-64NBrq-9cX5uZ-pinGm4-roGAzY-93evGo-4sYJfC-2HAe7g-roHzyE-6MmRaw-4B23ov-d6Np9m-4B23uP-64JjmF-95AgW3-64NAWJ-4B23gt-FNr4po-DzDSKW-CEsBWL-DtGSme-DaRvXN-DBY6Uc-DryxvY-CEsDcS-DBY8Nx-DtGSQa-DBY9mB-Dryyjm-xjtafy-uoejFa-MnGYEy-LjYjiU-iJh5oW (Accessed on 6 Nov 2016)
    Section 5: Biology and Ecology
    Singapore?
    [i] Chua, M., N. Sivasothi & R. Teo, 2009. Rediscovery of greater mouse deer, Tragulus napu (Mammalia: Artiodactyla: Tragulidae) in Pulau Ubin, Singapore. Nature in Singapore, 2: 373–378.
    [ii]”Camera trap” by Max Khoo De Yuan. Personal image.
    [iii] "Greater mouse deer in Singapore" by Max Khoo. Max Khoo YouTube Channel, 30 Oct 2016. URL: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=spk54VhUDug (Accessed on 6 Nov 2016)
    [iv] “Eagle vs. Water Chevrotain | National Geographic” by National Geographic. National Geographic YouTube Channel, 26 Jul 2007. URL: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=13GQbT2ljxs (Accessed on 6 Nov 2016)
    [v] “Lesser mouse deers mating” by Lian Yee Ming. Personal image
    Section 6: Distribution
    [i] “IUCN Red List Map of Tragulus napu” by IUCN, IUCN. URL: http://maps.iucnredlist.org/map.html?id=41781 (Accessed on 6 Nov 2016)
    [ii]
    “Singapore location
    ...
    2016)
    Section 7:5: Let's go
    [i] Left: “Greater mouse deer” by Lian Yee Ming. Personal image. Right: “Lesser mouse deer” by Lian Yee Ming. Personal image
    Section 8: Conservation status and threats
    [i] “IUCN Red List
    6: Learn about the role of Threatened Species” by IUCN, IUCN. URL: http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/41781/0 (Accessed on 6 Nov 2016)
    Section 9: Traditions
    mouse deers in our traditions and Beliefsbeliefs
    [i] “Pada Zaman Dahulu - Sang Kancil”, by Astro Ceria, Astro Ceria YouTube Channel, 1 May 2012. URL: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=An2gIG9im8M (Accessed on 6 Nov 2016)
    [ii] “Learning English by Stories - Crocodile and Mouse Deer”, by Michael Wong, Michael Wong YouTube Channel, 7 Jun 2013. URL: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Moc4mLhvaRk (Accessed on 6 Nov 2016)
    Section 7: Everything you need to know about greater mouse deer biology and ecology
    [i] “IUCN Red List Map of Tragulus napu” by IUCN, IUCN. URL: http://maps.iucnredlist.org/map.html?id=41781 (Accessed on 6 Nov 2016)
    [ii] Chua, M., N. Sivasothi & R. Teo, 2009. Rediscovery of greater mouse deer, Tragulus napu (Mammalia: Artiodactyla: Tragulidae) in Pulau Ubin, Singapore. Nature in Singapore, 2: 373–378.
    [iii]”Camera trap” by Max Khoo De Yuan. Personal image.
    [iv] "Greater mouse deer in Singapore" by Max Khoo. Max Khoo YouTube Channel, 30 Oct 2016. URL: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=spk54VhUDug (Accessed on 6 Nov 2016)
    [v] “Eagle vs. Water Chevrotain | National Geographic” by National Geographic. National Geographic YouTube Channel, 26 Jul 2007. URL: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=13GQbT2ljxs (Accessed on 6 Nov 2016)
    [vi] “Lesser mouse deers mating” by Lian Yee Ming. Personal image
    Section 8: Are there threats and conservation concerns?
    [i] “IUCN Red List of Threatened Species” by IUCN, IUCN. URL: http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/41781/0 (Accessed on 6 Nov 2016)
    Section 9: What are other greater mouse deer look alikes?
    [i] Left: Chua, M., N. Sivasothi & R. Teo, 2009. Rediscovery of greater mouse deer, Tragulus napu (Mammalia: Artiodactyla: Tragulidae) in Pulau Ubin, Singapore. Nature in Singapore, 2: 373–378. Right: “Philippine Mouse Deer (Smallest Deer in the world)”, by Karlo Yap, Flickr: https://www.flickr.com/photos/ytk23/2365351175/in/photolist-4Ua7MP-4HbUwt-5PchZg-64Jq9K-32e8Mj-48GYDt-93ewab-95Ahim-7UWKz3-fztA5M-cq8xFy-32e7wd-64NB2m-329xi8-C8847C-rFbgtJ-BBJKhw-64NBrq-9cX5uZ-pinGm4-roGAzY-93evGo-4sYJfC-2HAe7g-roHzyE-6MmRaw-4B23ov-d6Np9m-4B23uP-64JjmF-95AgW3-64NAWJ-4B23gt-FNr4po-DzDSKW-CEsBWL-DtGSme-DaRvXN-DBY6Uc-DryxvY-CEsDcS-DBY8Nx-DtGSQa-DBY9mB-Dryyjm-xjtafy-uoejFa-MnGYEy-LjYjiU-iJh5oW (Accessed on 6 Nov 2016)

    Section 10: Taxonomy
    [i] “le Chevrotain Napu de Sumatra”, by Bureau du Bulletin. URL: https://play.google.com/store/books/details/Andr%C3%A9_Etienne_Just_Pascal_Joseph_Fran%C3%A7ois_d_Audeba?id=yUtNAAAAcAAJ (Accessed on 6 Nov 2016)
    [ii] "Tragulus napu" by Max Khoo De Yuan. Personal image.
    Section 11: Phylogeny
    [i] Clifford, A. B., 2009. Evolution and mechanics of unguligrady in artiodactyls. Doctoral dissertation, Brown University.
    ...
    Francis, C. M., 2008. A Field Guide to the Mammals of South-east Asia, New Holland Publishers, UK. 392 pp.
    Medway, L., 1983. The Wild Mammals of Malaya (Peninsular Malaysia) and Singapore. 2nd Edition. Oxford University Press, Kuala Lumpur. 131 pp.
    Leslie Jr, D.M., 2011. Rusa unicolor (Artiodactyla: Cevidae). Mammalian Species, 43(871): 1-30.
    Francis, C. M., 2008. A Field Guide to the Mammals of South-east Asia, New Holland Publishers, UK. 392 pp.
    Ballenger, L. 1999. Mus musculus, Animal Diversity Web. Retrieved at http://animaldiversity.org/accounts/Mus_musculus/. Accessed on 15 November 2016.

    Chua, M., N. Sivasothi & R. Teo, 2009. Rediscovery of greater mouse deer, Tragulus napu (Mammalia: Artiodactyla: Tragulidae) in Pulau Ubin, Singapore. Nature in Singapore, 2: 373–378.
    Ross, J., A. J. Hearn, P. J. Johnson & D. W. Macdonald, 2013. Activity patterns and temporal avoidance by prey in response to Sunda clouded leopard predation risk: Activity of Sunda clouded leopards and their prey. Journal of Zoology, 290(2): 96–106.
    ...
    Meijaard, E. & C. P. Groves, 2004. A taxonomic revision of the Tragulus mousedeer (Artiodactyla). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 140(1): 63–102.
    Timmins, R. & J. W. Duckworth, 2015. Tragulus napu. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015. Retrieved at http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2015-2.RLTS.T41781A61978315.en. Accessed on 30 October 2016.
    Timmins, R. & J. W. Duckworth, 2015. Tragulus napu. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015. Retrieved at http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2015-2.RLTS.T41781A61978315.en. Accessed on 30 October 2016.
    Meijaard, E. & C. P. Groves, 2004. A taxonomic revision of the Tragulus mousedeer (Artiodactyla). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 140(1): 63–102.
    Meijaard, E. & C. P. Groves, 2004. A taxonomic revision of the Tragulus mousedeer (Artiodactyla). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 140(1): 63–102.

    Chasen FN. 1940. A handlist of Malaysian mammals. A systematic list of the mammals of the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Borneo and Java, including the adjacent small islands. Bulletin of the Raffles Museum, Singapore, Strait Settlements 15: 1–209.
    Meijaard, E. & C. P. Groves, 2004. A taxonomic revision of the Tragulus mousedeer (Artiodactyla). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 140(1): 63–102.
    van Bemmel AC. 1949. On the meaning of the name Cervus javanicus Osbeck 1765 (Tragulidae). Treubia 20: 378–380.
    Meijaard, E. & C. P. Groves, 2004. A taxonomic revision of the Tragulus mousedeer (Artiodactyla). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 140(1): 63–102.
    Wikipedia, 2016. Greater mouse-deer. Retrieved at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greater_mouse-deer. Accessed on 30 October 2016.
    Timmins, R. & J. W. Duckworth, 2015. Tragulus napu. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015. Retrieved at http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2015-2.RLTS.T41781A61978315.en. Accessed on 30 October 2016.
    Meijaard, E. & C. P. Groves, 2004. A taxonomic revision of the Tragulus mousedeer (Artiodactyla). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 140(1): 63–102.
    Gatesy, J., D. Yelon, R. DeSalle & E.S. Vrba, 1992. Phylogeny of the Bovidae (Artiodactyla, Mammalia), based on mitochondrial ribosomal DNA sequences. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 9(3): 433–446.
    Clifford, A. B., 2009. Evolution and mechanics of unguligrady in artiodactyls. Doctoral dissertation, Brown University.
    Meijaard, E. & C. P. Groves, 2004. A taxonomic revision of the Tragulus mousedeer (Artiodactyla). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 140(1): 63–102.
    Grubb, P. 1993. Order Artiodactyla. In Mammal Species of the World (eds. D. E. Wilson and D. M. Reeder). Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, 2142 pp.
    Meijaard, E. & C. P. Groves, 2004. A taxonomic revision of the Tragulus mousedeer (Artiodactyla). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 140(1): 63–102.

    Groves, C. & E. Meijaard, 2005. Intraspecific variation in Moschiola, the Indian Chevrotain. The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology. Supplement 12: 413–421.
    Fernández, M. H. & E. S. Vrba, E. S., 2005. A complete estimate of the phylogenetic relationships in Ruminantia: a dated species-level supertree of the extant ruminants. Biological Reviews, 80(2): 269–302.
    Endo, H., K. Fukuta, J. Kimura, M. Sasaki, Y. Hayashi & T. Oshida, 2004. Phylogenetic relationships among populations of the mouse deer in the Southeast Asian Region from the nucleotide sequence of cytochrome b gene. Mammal Study, 29(2): 119-123.
    Endo, H., K. Fukuta, J. Kimura, M. Sasaki, Y. Hayashi & T. Oshida, 2004. Phylogenetic relationships among populations of the mouse deer in the Southeast Asian Region from the nucleotide sequence of cytochrome b gene. Mammal Study, 29(2): 119-123.
    Endo, H., K. Fukuta, J. Kimura, M. Sasaki, Y. Hayashi & T. Oshida, 2004. Phylogenetic relationships among populations of the mouse deer in the Southeast Asian Region from the nucleotide sequence of cytochrome b gene. Mammal Study, 29(2): 119-123.

    Endo, H., K. Fukuta, J. Kimura, M. Sasaki, Y. Hayashi & T. Oshida, 2004. Phylogenetic relationships among populations of the mouse deer in the Southeast Asian Region from the nucleotide sequence of cytochrome b gene. Mammal Study, 29(2): 119-123.
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  4. page Greater Mouse Deer edited ... Variation of body size, colouration and skin patterns within species An interesting fact is t…
    ...
    Variation of body size, colouration and skin patterns within species
    An interesting fact is that the colouration and body size of greater mouse deers vary widely, and this has been attributed to the size of the island that it is found in On larger islands. greater mouse deers have a larger body size and their fur is duller and yellowish brown in colour. For smaller islands, they have a smaller body size, and their fur is reddish and black in certain parts. Skin patterns of the greater mouse deers vary between regions . See Section 10 on subspecies for more information.
    {GMD (9).jpg}
    Two
    Two greater mouse
    3. How to distinguish between the two mouse deer species in Singapore?
    Comparison with lesser mouse deer (Tragulus kanchil)
    ...
    Diet
    Greater mouse deers feed on fallen fruits, leaf shoots and other vegetation in the undergrowth of forests In the Ulu Segama Forest Reserve in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo, the subspecies Tragulus napu borneanus is mainly fruit-eating and frequently consumes fallen figs (Ficus spp.) .
    ...
    by Marcus Chua[3]Chua , used
    Activity and Behaviour
    How do scientists observe and learn about the greater mouse deer’s activity and behaviour in the wild as they are shy and are only active at night? Apart from physically conducting night spotlighting surveys, scientists also set up camera and video motion-sensor traps to capture images and videos of animals. Also, captive animals in zoos provide a good opportunity to study these animals.
    {Trap.jpg} A camera trap that captures images when it senses motion. Most traps are able to capture images at nightas well as they are equipped with infrared sensors. Image and annotations by Max Khoo.
    A footage of a greater mouse deer in Pulau Ubin, captured using a video trap. Video by Max Khoo.
    ...
    table below [7][8] ! !
    Activity type
    Sub-category of activity type
    ...
    {LMD (2).jpg}
    Predators
    ...
    clouded leopards [1] andand in Bukit
    ...
    mouse deers . .
    8. Are there threats and conservation concerns?
    Global status and threats
    ...
    2) hunting [1][6][11] . .
    {IUCN.JPG} Conservation status of greater mouse deer is listed as "Least Concern". Image is a screen capture from The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. used in accordance with the Fair Use guidelines .
    ...
    are sub-optimal habitats[11].habitats. The was
    ...
    primary forests [11]. .
    Hunting is
    ...
    targets by hunters[6][18],hunters, with no
    ...
    mouse deer [1][18]. . However, detailed
    Threats in Singapore
    ...
    greater mouse deers[3].deer. This is
    ...
    the forest [3].. Although being
    ...
    in 2007 [20]. .
    9. What are other greater mouse deer look alikes?
    Apart from the greater mouse deer, there are other species within the taxon Tragulus that resemble one another (less the greater mouse deer); the Philippine and Vietnam mouse deer.
    Comparison with Philippine mouse deer (Tragulus nigricans)
    ...
    and black [1]..
    {GMD-PMD.jpg} The
    ...
    Chan Kwok Wai [3],Wai, used with
    Comparison with Vietnam mouse deer (Tragulus versicolor)
    ...
    very long nasals [1].nasals. Also, it
    ...
    of the potion [1].potion. The dark
    ...
    is also absent [1].absent. Lastly, the
    ...
    mouse deers [1]..
    10. Taxonomy
    10Type specimen
    ...
    not preserved [6] [9]..
    {Type.jpg}
    The original description (in French) of greater mouse deer in: Bulletin général et universel des annonces et des nouvelles scientifiques: Volume 1.This resource is Digital Rights Management free.
    ...
    Francis, C. M., 2008. A Field Guide to the Mammals of South-east Asia, New Holland Publishers, UK. 392 pp.
    Heydon, M. J. & P. Bulloh, 1997. Mousedeer Densities in a Tropical Rainforest: The Impact of Selective Logging. The Journal of Applied Ecology, 34(2): 484.
    Kalina, J. & M. A. Adams, 1984. Intermandibular Gland Secretions of Larger Malayan Mouse-Deer (Tragulus napu). Journal of Mammalogy, 65(4): 715–718.
    Ralls, K., C. Barasch & K. Minkowski, 1975. Behavior of captive mouse deer, Tragulus napu. Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie, 37(4): 356-378.

    Meijaard, E., Umilaela & G. de Silva Wijeyeratne, 2010. Aquatic escape behaviour in mouse-deer provides insight into tragulid evolution. Mammalian Biology - Zeitschrift Für Säugetierkunde, 75(5): 471–473.
    Kawanishi, K. & E. M. Sunquist, 2008. Food habits and activity patterns of the Asiatic golden cat (Catopuma temminckii) and dhole (Cuon alpinus) in a primary rainforest of Peninsular Malaysia. Mammal Study, 33(4): 173-177.
    Francis, C. M., 2008. A Field Guide to the Mammals of South-east Asia, New Holland Publishers, UK. 392 pp.
    O'Brien, T. G., M. F. Kinnaird & H. T. Wibisono, 2003. Crouching tigers, hidden prey: Sumatran tiger and prey populations in a tropical forest landscape. Animal Conservation, 6(02): 131-139.
    Francis, C. M., 2008. A Field Guide to the Mammals of South-east Asia, New Holland Publishers, UK. 392 pp.
    Timmins, R. & J. W. Duckworth, 2015. Tragulus napu. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015. Retrieved at http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.20152. RLTS.T41781A61978315.en. Accessed on 30 October 2016.

    Meijaard, E. & D, Sheil, 2006. The persistence and conservation of Borneo’s mammals in lowland rain forests managed for timber: observations, overviews and opportunities. Ecological Research, 23(1): 21–34.
    Heydon, M. J. & P. Bulloh, 1997. Mousedeer Densities in a Tropical Rainforest: The Impact of Selective Logging. The Journal of Applied Ecology, 34(2): 484.
    Heydon, M. J. & P. Bulloh, 1997. Mousedeer Densities in a Tropical Rainforest: The Impact of Selective Logging. The Journal of Applied Ecology, 34(2): 484.
    Francis, C. M., 2008. A Field Guide to the Mammals of South-east Asia, New Holland Publishers, UK. 392 pp.
    Timmins, R. & J. W. Duckworth, 2015. Tragulus napu. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015. Retrieved at http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.20152. RLTS.T41781A61978315.en. Accessed on 30 October 2016.
    Meijaard, E. & D, Sheil, 2006. The persistence and conservation of Borneo’s mammals in lowland rain forests managed for timber: observations, overviews and opportunities. Ecological Research, 23(1): 21–34.
    Chua, M., N. Sivasothi & R. Teo, 2009. Rediscovery of greater mouse deer, Tragulus napu (Mammalia: Artiodactyla: Tragulidae) in Pulau Ubin, Singapore. Nature in Singapore, 2: 373–378.

    Corlett, R. T. 1992. The Ecological Transformation of Singapore, 1819-1990. Journal of Biogeography, 19(4): 411.
    Sumathi, V. S., 2007. Illegal animal traps found on Ubin. The Straits Times, 19 Dec 2007.
    Sumathi, V. S., 2007. Illegal animal traps found on Ubin. The Straits Times, 19 Dec 2007.
    Francis, C. M., 2008. A Field Guide to the Mammals of South-east Asia, New Holland Publishers, UK. 392 pp.
    Meijaard, E. & C. P. Groves, 2004. A taxonomic revision of the Tragulus mousedeer (Artiodactyla). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 140(1): 63–102.

    Grubb, P. 1993. Order Artiodactyla. In Mammal Species of the World (eds. D. E. Wilson and D. M. Reeder). Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, 2142 pp.
    Meijaard, E. & C. P. Groves, 2004. A taxonomic revision of the Tragulus mousedeer (Artiodactyla). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 140(1): 63–102.
    Timmins, R. & J. W. Duckworth, 2015. Tragulus napu. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015. Retrieved at http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2015-2.RLTS.T41781A61978315.en. Accessed on 30 October 2016.

    Chasen FN. 1940. A handlist of Malaysian mammals. A systematic list of the mammals of the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Borneo and Java, including the adjacent small islands. Bulletin of the Raffles Museum, Singapore, Strait Settlements 15: 1–209.
    van Bemmel AC. 1949. On the meaning of the name Cervus javanicus Osbeck 1765 (Tragulidae). Treubia 20: 378–380.
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  5. page Greater Mouse Deer edited ... iv) Greater mouse deers are capable of swimming They have the ability to dive and stay underw…
    ...
    iv) Greater mouse deers are capable of swimming
    They have the ability to dive and stay underwater to avoid being captured by predators (See Section 7)
    ...
    out more? Continue to readRead on andto discover more amazing facts ofabout the greater
    ...
    Mouse Deer?
    The

    1The
    greater mouse
    However, it is neither a goat, a mouse nor a true deer! The use of “mouse” refers to its small body size. They are different from true deers in that they have triangular patterns on their upper jaws and that the males lack antlers .
    {Comparison.jpg}
    TwoThe sambar deer and house mouse are animals that can be found in Singapore. The sizes for SH and HB for the 3 animals are based on the maximum recorded size for the animal.
    Two
    species of
    ...
    Pulau Ubin [4]..
    2. What does a greater mouse deer look like?
    Physical characteristics
    Adult
    ...
    measures 52-60cm long [1][2],long, its hind
    ...
    15.7cm in length [1] [2].length. It has
    ...
    30- 35cm, and has a
    ...
    to 10cm [1] . Itand weighs about 3.5-6 kilograms [1] [2].kilograms. Male mouse
    ...
    four mamme [1] [2]. .
    {GMD (4).jpg}
    ...
    by Marcus Chua [3],Chua, used with
    {LMD (5).JPG}
    A photo showing the canine of a lesser mouse deer that extends out of the upper jaw. This canine is also present in the greater mouse deer.Image by Hans De Bisschop, annotations by Max Khoo. Used under Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial License.
    ...
    than females [7].. These secretions
    ...
    them during mating[8].mating .
    {GMD (6).jpg} A camera trap image showing a male greater mouse deer with the canineand swollen inter-mandibular gland. Image and annotations by Max Khoo.
    Juvenile
    ...
    produced per birth [2].birth. The juvenile,
    ...
    4.5months old [2] and reach
    ...
    at 5months old.old .
    {GMD (2).JPG}
    ...
    by Marcus Chua[3],Chua, used with
    Colouration
    In general:
    Body
    ...
    its belly [1]..
    Neck, throat and upper chest patterns
    ...
    of the throat[1][3].throat. In total,
    ...
    the neck [1]. .
    {GMD (5).jpg}
    ...
    Chan Kwok Wai [3],Wai, used with
    Variation of body size, colouration and skin patterns within species
    ...
    in certain parts [1].parts. Skin patterns
    ...
    between regions [1].. See Section
    {GMD (9).jpg}
    ...
    by Marcus Chua[3],Chua, used with
    3. How to distinguish between the two mouse deer species in Singapore?
    Comparison with lesser mouse deer (Tragulus kanchil)
    See a mouse deer in Singapore? How do you know which mouse deer you are looking at?
    ...
    on islands [1].. This makes
    ...
    in Singapore [1][2][3] : :
    Features and location
    Greater mouse deer
    ...
    Pulau Ubin
    Central catchment Nature Reserve and Bukit Timah Nature Reserve
    ...
    by Marcus Chua[3],Chua, right image
    {GMD-LMD.JPG}
    ...
    pattern of greater and lesser mouse deer (left) and greater mouse deer (right).deer. Each line
    ...
    by Marcus Chua[3],Chua, used with
    {GMD (8).jpg} Here shows a skull of the greater mouse deer. Many studies trying to differentiate between mouse deer species have focused on analysing the dimensions of various parts of their skull. Image by Phil Myers. Used under Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial License.
    4. Were there always mouse deers in Singapore?
    In4In the 20th
    ...
    Timah Nature Reserve[1]Reserve . Eight
    ...
    ever since [3]. .
    {SGMap.jpg} Map showing the distribution of lesser and greater mouse deer in Singapore.Base map from Wikimedia Commons, Used under Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial License. Annotations by Max Khoo.
    ...
    the study [3]..
    The researchers
    ...
    Pulau Ubin [3]..
    They also
    ...
    (See Section 57 for swimming
    ...
    of mouse deers) [3].deers).
    5. Let's go mouse deer spotting!
    As both mouse deer species in Singapore are active at night, the chances of spotting them in the wild in Singapore is very slim. Your best bet would probably to head down to the Singapore Zoo, where they have both the lesser and greater mouse deer. You can even walk alongside the lesser mouse deer in the Fragile Forest exhibit, an exhibit that recreates a rainforest habitat where various animals are free to roam!
    ...
    Sighting records are important - over time, these can contribute to public awareness and education, suggest research projects and supplement research in conservation and management projects.
    6. Learn about the role of mouse deers in our traditions and beliefs
    Mouse6Mouse deers (both
    Sang Kanchil (Mr. Mouse deer) and the crocodiles
    Sang Kanchil was travelling through the forest when he came to a river full of crocodiles. He wondered how to get across, and soon though of a plan. Going to the bank he called:
    ...
    He leaped from the bank onto the back of the nearest crocodile and counted “one” in a loud voice; “Two” as he leaped on the back of the next, “Three, Four, Five, Six, Seven, Eight, Nine, Ten, - done” as he leaped onto the farther bank.
    “I counted truly, and now that my counting has brought me across you may sink into the mud, you silly beasts.”
    ...
    John Harrison [21].. It is
    {GMD (10).jpg}
    Sang Kanchil, the main character of Pada Zaman Dahulu (Once Upon A Time) an animated mini-series told in Malay that brings to life the Malaysian folk stories of a clever mousedeer and other jungle creatures. Image is a screen capture from Pada Zaman Dahulu - Sang Kancil.Used in accordance with the Fair Use guidelines.
    ...
    Below is all the information currently available about the greater mouse deer. Studies were mostly done on greater mouse deers overseas, hence local context is lacking.
    Habitat
    ...
    forests, secondary forests[1][3][4]forests , logged forests [1][3] and and sometimes venture into gardens [12].. They occupy
    ...
    sea level [12]..
    In the
    ...
    per km2 [11]. .
    Global distribution
    ...
    Tioman, Singapore [6][9]. .
    {Map1.JPG}
    Map showing the global distribution of the greater mouse deer. Greater mouse deers are native to the areas blocked off in orange. Image is a screen capture from The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species global distribution map. Used in accordance with the Fair Use guidelines.
    Diet
    ...
    undergrowth of forests[1][11].forests In the
    ...
    (Ficus spp.) [11]. .
    {GMD (3).JPG} Two greater mouse deers foraging in undergrowth of a secondary forest in Singapore. Image by Marcus Chua[3] , used with permission.
    Activity and Behaviour
    ...
    Interactions among individuals such as biting, chasing, “growling”, and raising its tail.
    It is not always easy to study the shy greater mouse deer. As such, inferences of their behaviour can often be drawn by species that are closely related to them.
    There7There have not
    ...
    the water.
    {LMD (2).jpg} Lesser

    Lesser
    mouse deers
    ...
    from the back. Thisback.This position is
    ...
    with permission.
    {LMD (2).jpg}

    Predators
    In the primary forests of Taman Negara National Park of Peninsular Malaysia, dholes and Asiatic golden cat prey on mouse deers . In Borneo, mouse deers fall prey to clouded leopards [1] and in Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park of Sumatra, Indonesia, Sumatran tigers are predators of the mouse deers .
    ...
    See a mouse deer in Singapore? It is most definitely also not a Vietnam mouse deer! The Vietnam mouse deer can only be found in southern Vietnam. It differs from the greater mouse deer in that it skulls are much smaller but wider, and with wider bullae and very long nasals [1]. Also, it has a distinct colouration: ochre in the front portion before the shoulders, and in the rest of the potion [1]. The dark median line on the white underparts present in all greater mouse deers is also absent [1]. Lastly, the Vietnam mouse deer does not have a dark collar found in all greater mouse deers [1].
    10. Taxonomy
    Type10Type specimen
    The greater mouse deer was first described by F. Cuvier in 1822 under the binominal name Moschus napu using a specimen for Sumatra, Indonesia. The type specimen for this species was not preserved [6] [9].
    {Type.jpg}
    ...
    Terutau
    11. Phylogeny
    Mouse11Mouse deers (Tragulidae)
    ...
    by Max Khoo.ImageKhoo. How the phylogenetic tree was derived was not included in the study and not publicly available. Image permission pending,
    There are three taxon groups within Tragulidae. They are Hyemoschus, Moschiola and Tragulus [9]. Prior to 2004, there were four recognised species within these three groups [24]. In 2004, T. williamsoni and T. kanchil was split from T. javanicus, and T. versicolor and T. nigricans were split form T. napu [9]. In 2005, M. kathygre and M. indica were split from M. memina . Hence, 10 extant species of mouse deer exists today.
    Tragulidae:
    ...
    Greater mouse deer in Animals and Plants of Singapore
    Submit your sightings in Mammal Sightings in Singapore
    Other species pages from LSM4254 class in Taxo4254
    13. References
    Page done by: Max Khoo De Yuan (khoomax[at]u.nus.edu)
    ...
    Chua, M., N. Sivasothi & R. Teo, 2009. Rediscovery of greater mouse deer, Tragulus napu (Mammalia: Artiodactyla: Tragulidae) in Pulau Ubin, Singapore. Nature in Singapore, 2: 373–378.
    Ross, J., A. J. Hearn, P. J. Johnson & D. W. Macdonald, 2013. Activity patterns and temporal avoidance by prey in response to Sunda clouded leopard predation risk: Activity of Sunda clouded leopards and their prey. Journal of Zoology, 290(2): 96–106.
    Chua, M., N. Sivasothi & R. Teo, 2009. Rediscovery of greater mouse deer, Tragulus napu (Mammalia: Artiodactyla: Tragulidae) in Pulau Ubin, Singapore. Nature in Singapore, 2: 373–378.
    Francis, C. M., 2008. A Field Guide to the Mammals of South-east Asia, New Holland Publishers, UK. 392 pp.
    Medway, L., 1983. The Wild Mammals of Malaya (Peninsular Malaysia) and Singapore. 2nd Edition. Oxford University Press, Kuala Lumpur. 131 pp.

    Kalina, J. & M. A. Adams, 1984. Intermandibular Gland Secretions of Larger Malayan Mouse-Deer (Tragulus napu). Journal of Mammalogy, 65(4): 715–718.
    Ralls, K., C. Barasch & K. Minkowski, 1975. Behavior of captive mouse deer, Tragulus napu. Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie, 37(4): 356-378.
    Kalina, J. & M. A. Adams, 1984. Intermandibular Gland Secretions of Larger Malayan Mouse-Deer (Tragulus napu). Journal of Mammalogy, 65(4): 715–718.
    Ralls, K., C. Barasch & K. Minkowski, 1975. Behavior of captive mouse deer, Tragulus napu. Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie, 37(4): 356-378.
    Medway, L., 1983. The Wild Mammals of Malaya (Peninsular Malaysia) and Singapore. 2nd Edition. Oxford University Press, Kuala Lumpur. 131 pp.
    Francis, C. M., 2008. A Field Guide to the Mammals of South-east Asia, New Holland Publishers, UK. 392 pp.
    Francis, C. M., 2008. A Field Guide to the Mammals of South-east Asia, New Holland Publishers, UK. 392 pp.
    Chua, M., N. Sivasothi & R. Teo, 2009. Rediscovery of greater mouse deer, Tragulus napu (Mammalia: Artiodactyla: Tragulidae) in Pulau Ubin, Singapore. Nature in Singapore, 2: 373–378.

    Meijaard, E. & C. P. Groves, 2004. A taxonomic revision of the Tragulus mouse-deer (Artiodactyla). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 140(1): 63–102.
    Francis, C. M., 2008. A Field Guide to the Mammals of South-east Asia, New Holland Publishers, UK. 392 pp.
    Francis, C. M., 2008. A Field Guide to the Mammals of South-east Asia, New Holland Publishers, UK. 392 pp.

    Dort, S. V. M., 1989. Skin, skull and skeleton characters of mouse deer (Mammalia, Tragulidae), with keys to the species. Bulletin Zoologisch Museum, 12(5): 89-96.
    Francis, C. M., 2008. A Field Guide to the Mammals of South-east Asia, New Holland Publishers, UK. 392 pp.
    Medway, L., 1983. The Wild Mammals of Malaya (Peninsular Malaysia) and Singapore. 2nd Edition. Oxford University Press, Kuala Lumpur. 131 pp.
    Chua, M., N. Sivasothi & R. Teo, 2009. Rediscovery of greater mouse deer, Tragulus napu (Mammalia: Artiodactyla: Tragulidae) in Pulau Ubin, Singapore. Nature in Singapore, 2: 373–378.

    Yang, C. M., K. Yong & K. K. P. Lim, 1990. Wild mammals of Singapore. In: Chou, L. M. & P. K. L. Ng (eds.), Essays In Zoology. Department of Zoology, National University of Singapore, Singapore. Pp. 1–23.
    Francis, C. M., 2008. A Field Guide to the Mammals of South-east Asia, New Holland Publishers, UK. 392 pp.
    Chua, M., N. Sivasothi & R. Teo, 2009. Rediscovery of greater mouse deer, Tragulus napu (Mammalia: Artiodactyla: Tragulidae) in Pulau Ubin, Singapore. Nature in Singapore, 2: 373–378.
    Chua, M., N. Sivasothi & R. Teo, 2009. Rediscovery of greater mouse deer, Tragulus napu (Mammalia: Artiodactyla: Tragulidae) in Pulau Ubin, Singapore. Nature in Singapore, 2: 373–378.
    Chua, M., N. Sivasothi & R. Teo, 2009. Rediscovery of greater mouse deer, Tragulus napu (Mammalia: Artiodactyla: Tragulidae) in Pulau Ubin, Singapore. Nature in Singapore, 2: 373–378.
    Chua, M., N. Sivasothi & R. Teo, 2009. Rediscovery of greater mouse deer, Tragulus napu (Mammalia: Artiodactyla: Tragulidae) in Pulau Ubin, Singapore. Nature in Singapore, 2: 373–378.

    Harrison, J. L., 1966. An introduction to mammals of Singapore and Malaya. Singapore Branch, Malayan Nature Society, 340 pp.
    Harrison, J. L., 1966. An introduction to mammals of Singapore and Malaya. Singapore Branch, Malayan Nature Society, 340 pp.
    Chua, M., N. Sivasothi & R. Teo, 2009. Rediscovery of greater mouse deer, Tragulus napu (Mammalia: Artiodactyla: Tragulidae) in Pulau Ubin, Singapore. Nature in Singapore, 2: 373–378.

    Heydon, M. J. & P. Bulloh, 1997. Mousedeer Densities in a Tropical Rainforest: The Impact of Selective Logging. The Journal of Applied Ecology, 34(2): 484.
    Miller, G. S., 1909. The mouse deer of the Rhio-linga archipelago: A study of specific differentiation under uniform environment, 37.
    Francis, C. M., 2008. A Field Guide to the Mammals of South-east Asia, New Holland Publishers, UK. 392 pp.
    Chua, M., N. Sivasothi & R. Teo, 2009. Rediscovery of greater mouse deer, Tragulus napu (Mammalia: Artiodactyla: Tragulidae) in Pulau Ubin, Singapore. Nature in Singapore, 2: 373–378.
    Miller, G. S., 1909. The mouse deer of the Rhiolinga archipelago: A study of specific differentiation under uniform environment, 37.
    Miller, G. S., 1909. The mouse deer of the Rhiolinga archipelago: A study of specific differentiation under uniform environment, 37.

    Ahmad, A. H., 1994. The ecology of mousedeer (Tragulus species) in a Bornean rain forest, Sabah, Malaysia. MPhil thesis, University of Aberdeen.
    Heydon, M. J. & P. Bulloh, 1997. Mousedeer Densities in a Tropical Rainforest: The Impact of Selective Logging. The Journal of Applied Ecology, 34(2): 484.
    Timmins, R. & J. W. Duckworth, 2015. Tragulus napu. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015. Retrieved at http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.20152. RLTS.T41781A61978315.en. Accessed on 30 October 2016.
    Meijaard, E. & C. P. Groves, 2004. A taxonomic revision of the Tragulus mouse-deer (Artiodactyla). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 140(1): 63–102.
    Francis, C. M., 2008. A Field Guide to the Mammals of South-east Asia, New Holland Publishers, UK. 392 pp.
    Heydon, M. J. & P. Bulloh, 1997. Mousedeer Densities in a Tropical Rainforest: The Impact of Selective Logging. The Journal of Applied Ecology, 34(2): 484.

    Meijaard, E., Umilaela & G. de Silva Wijeyeratne, 2010. Aquatic escape behaviour in mouse-deer provides insight into tragulid evolution. Mammalian Biology - Zeitschrift Für Säugetierkunde, 75(5): 471–473.
    Kawanishi, K. & E. M. Sunquist, 2008. Food habits and activity patterns of the Asiatic golden cat (Catopuma temminckii) and dhole (Cuon alpinus) in a primary rainforest of Peninsular Malaysia. Mammal Study, 33(4): 173-177.
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